点击次数:1223      更新时间:2017-04-22 05:24:00       作者:本站整理      来源:www.lan6.net        QQ交流群:626957820


 

1. 概述

NDK图片压缩有很多人反应是蒙的,包括在文章评论的一些哥们,也包括私下聊天的一些哥们。那么内涵段子后面的所有分享都离不开NDK,比如gif图片加载,视频压缩,视频直播推流等等。当然我们也可以去网上下载别人写好的,但是对于我们来说没任何意义。经过后来一系列的考虑,内涵段子项目暂时告一个段落。希望后面有时间出一些C和C++的语法基础,然后我们再来实现后面的功能,这期是现阶段最后一次分享NDK了, 这次我会一步一步来实现

每次演示我记得我都下载的是内涵段子6.0.1的版本,但是每到周末就发现更新到了最新的版本,在我的印象里我从来都没有去更新过,那么到底是怎么回事?有些应用弹出更新我一般是拒绝的,因为我需要下载几十M的apk要等太久,没耐心。而增量更新就解决了这个问题,我们更新版本不需要全部下载最新版的apk,而只需要下载一个几M甚至更小的差分包,就能完成更新了。网上这方面的资料也比较多大家可以多看看别人写的文章。

2. 下载生成AS的.so库

1.下载整合bsdiff和bzip2

百度搜索 bsdiff 目前最新版本是4.3,点击 here 就可以下载了。文件只有5KB,里面有两个文件很重要bsdiff.c和bspatch.c,一个用来生成差分包一个用来合并差分包。

bsdiff解压后.png

打开.c源码瞧瞧,里面还需要我们下载bzip2,百度搜索 bzip2 ,点击 1.0.6 source tarball 就可以下载了。这个文件就有点大了,我们把里面的.h和.c文件拷贝出来整合到bsdiff里面。

bsdiff和bzip2整合.png

2.生成AS的.so库

把整合好的所有文件都copy到项目的jni目录下面就可以开始写代码了:

#if 0
__FBSDID("$FreeBSD: src/usr.bin/bsdiff/bspatch/bspatch.c,v 1.1 2005/08/06 01:59:06 cperciva Exp $");
#endif

#include "bzlib.c"
#include "crctable.c"
#include "compress.c"
#include "decompress.c"
#include "randtable.c"
#include "blocksort.c"
#include "huffman.c"
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include 
#include "com_darren_util_PatchUtils.h"

static off_t offtin(u_char *buf)
{
    off_t y;

    y=buf[7]&0x7F;
    y=y*256;y+=buf[6];
    y=y*256;y+=buf[5];
    y=y*256;y+=buf[4];
    y=y*256;y+=buf[3];
    y=y*256;y+=buf[2];
    y=y*256;y+=buf[1];
    y=y*256;y+=buf[0];

    if(buf[7]&0x80) y=-y;

    return y;
}

int combine(int argc,char * argv[])
{
    FILE * f, * cpf, * dpf, * epf;
    BZFILE * cpfbz2, * dpfbz2, * epfbz2;
    int cbz2err, dbz2err, ebz2err;
    int fd;
    ssize_t oldsize,newsize;
    ssize_t bzctrllen,bzdatalen;
    u_char header[32],buf[8];
    u_char *old, *new;
    off_t oldpos,newpos;
    off_t ctrl[3];
    off_t lenread;
    off_t i;

    if(argc!=4) errx(1,"usage: %s oldfile newfile patchfile
",argv[0]);

    /* Open patch file */
    if ((f = fopen(argv[3], "r")) == NULL)
        err(1, "fopen(%s)", argv[3]);

    /*
    File format:
        0    8    "BSDIFF40"
        8    8    X
        16    8    Y
        24    8    sizeof(newfile)
        32    X    bzip2(control block)
        32+X    Y    bzip2(diff block)
        32+X+Y    ???    bzip2(extra block)
    with control block a set of triples (x,y,z) meaning "add x bytes
    from oldfile to x bytes from the diff block; copy y bytes from the
    extra block; seek forwards in oldfile by z bytes".
    */

    /* Read header */
    if (fread(header, 1, 32, f) < 32) {
        if (feof(f))
            errx(1, "Corrupt patch
");
        err(1, "fread(%s)", argv[3]);
    }

    /* Check for appropriate magic */
    if (memcmp(header, "BSDIFF40", 8) != 0)
        errx(1, "Corrupt patch
");

    /* Read lengths from header */
    bzctrllen=offtin(header+8);
    bzdatalen=offtin(header+16);
    newsize=offtin(header+24);
    if((bzctrllen<0) || (bzdatalen<0) || (newsize<0))
        errx(1,"Corrupt patch
");

    /* Close patch file and re-open it via libbzip2 at the right places */
    if (fclose(f))
        err(1, "fclose(%s)", argv[3]);
    if ((cpf = fopen(argv[3], "r")) == NULL)
        err(1, "fopen(%s)", argv[3]);
    if (fseeko(cpf, 32, SEEK_SET))
        err(1, "fseeko(%s, %lld)", argv[3],
            (long long)32);
    if ((cpfbz2 = BZ2_bzReadOpen(&cbz2err, cpf, 0, 0, NULL, 0)) == NULL)
        errx(1, "BZ2_bzReadOpen, bz2err = %d", cbz2err);
    if ((dpf = fopen(argv[3], "r")) == NULL)
        err(1, "fopen(%s)", argv[3]);
    if (fseeko(dpf, 32 + bzctrllen, SEEK_SET))
        err(1, "fseeko(%s, %lld)", argv[3],
            (long long)(32 + bzctrllen));
    if ((dpfbz2 = BZ2_bzReadOpen(&dbz2err, dpf, 0, 0, NULL, 0)) == NULL)
        errx(1, "BZ2_bzReadOpen, bz2err = %d", dbz2err);
    if ((epf = fopen(argv[3], "r")) == NULL)
        err(1, "fopen(%s)", argv[3]);
    if (fseeko(epf, 32 + bzctrllen + bzdatalen, SEEK_SET))
        err(1, "fseeko(%s, %lld)", argv[3],
            (long long)(32 + bzctrllen + bzdatalen));
    if ((epfbz2 = BZ2_bzReadOpen(&ebz2err, epf, 0, 0, NULL, 0)) == NULL)
        errx(1, "BZ2_bzReadOpen, bz2err = %d", ebz2err);

    if(((fd=open(argv[1],O_RDONLY,0))<0) ||
        ((oldsize=lseek(fd,0,SEEK_END))==-1) ||
        ((old=malloc(oldsize+1))==NULL) ||
        (lseek(fd,0,SEEK_SET)!=0) ||
        (read(fd,old,oldsize)!=oldsize) ||
        (close(fd)==-1)) err(1,"%s",argv[1]);
    if((new=malloc(newsize+1))==NULL) err(1,NULL);

    oldpos=0;newpos=0;
    while(newposnewsize)
            errx(1,"Corrupt patch
");

        /* Read diff string */
        lenread = BZ2_bzRead(&dbz2err, dpfbz2, new + newpos, ctrl[0]);
        if ((lenread < ctrl[0]) ||
            ((dbz2err != BZ_OK) && (dbz2err != BZ_STREAM_END)))
            errx(1, "Corrupt patch
");

        /* Add old data to diff string */
        for(i=0;i=0) && (oldpos+inewsize)
            errx(1,"Corrupt patch
");

        /* Read extra string */
        lenread = BZ2_bzRead(&ebz2err, epfbz2, new + newpos, ctrl[1]);
        if ((lenread < ctrl[1]) ||
            ((ebz2err != BZ_OK) && (ebz2err != BZ_STREAM_END)))
            errx(1, "Corrupt patch
");

        /* Adjust pointers */
        newpos+=ctrl[1];
        oldpos+=ctrl[2];
    };

    /* Clean up the bzip2 reads */
    BZ2_bzReadClose(&cbz2err, cpfbz2);
    BZ2_bzReadClose(&dbz2err, dpfbz2);
    BZ2_bzReadClose(&ebz2err, epfbz2);
    if (fclose(cpf) || fclose(dpf) || fclose(epf))
        err(1, "fclose(%s)", argv[3]);

    /* Write the new file */
    if(((fd=open(argv[2],O_CREAT|O_TRUNC|O_WRONLY,0666))<0) ||
        (write(fd,new,newsize)!=newsize) || (close(fd)==-1))
        err(1,"%s",argv[2]);

    free(new);
    free(old);

    return 0;
}

// 合并差分包
JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_com_darren_util_PatchUtils_combine
(JNIEnv *env, jclass jclz, jstring old_apk_path, jstring new_apk_path, jstring patch_path){
    // 固定参数 4
    int argc = 4;
    // 转换 jstring -> char*
    char* old_apk_cstr = (char*)(*env)->GetStringUTFChars(env,old_apk_path,NULL);
    char* new_apk_cstr = (char*)(*env)->GetStringUTFChars(env,new_apk_path,NULL);
    char* patch_path_cstr = (char*)(*env)->GetStringUTFChars(env,patch_path,NULL);
    // 赋值
    char * argv[4];
    argv[0] = "combine";
    argv[1] = old_apk_cstr;
    argv[2] = new_apk_cstr;
    argv[3] = patch_path_cstr;

    // 调用合并方法
    patch(argc,argv);

    // 释放资源
    (*env)->ReleaseStringUTFChars(env,old_apk_path,old_apk_cstr);
    (*env)->ReleaseStringUTFChars(env,new_apk_path,new_apk_cstr);
    (*env)->ReleaseStringUTFChars(env,patch_path,patch_path_cstr);
}

3.下载差分包合并校验

假设目前我们手机上面是安装的内涵段子1.0的版本,服务器上面已经有了2.0的版本,那么现在我们只需要下载差分包就好,然后调用已经写好的.so的方法生成2.0的版本,校验签名即可。

/**
     * 获取当前apk的签名
     * @param context
     * @return
     */
    public static String getSignature(Context context){
        // 通过Context获取当前包名
        String currentApkPackageName = context.getApplicationInfo().packageName;

        Log.e(TAG,"TAG -> "+currentApkPackageName);

        // 通过PackageManager获取所有应用的PackageInfo信息
        PackageManager packageManager = context.getPackageManager();
        List packageInfos = packageManager.getInstalledPackages(PackageManager.GET_SIGNATURES);
        for (PackageInfo packageInfo : packageInfos) {
            if(packageInfo.packageName.equals(currentApkPackageName)){
                // 获取签名
                return packageInfo.signatures[0].toCharsString();
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

获取某个路径下的apk签名,这个倒是真的把我难住了。某些哥们就立马来灵感了,百度啊,可是早在几年前那个时候网上很少找得到答案。况且网上找的解决方案也大多存在版本兼容问题,不过还好系统应用里面不是有签名校验吗?我们可以把系统应用的源码拿出来看看,看它是怎么校验签名的又或者说是怎么获取PackageInfo的。

/*
     * Utility method to get application information for a given packageURI
     */
    public static  ApplicationInfo getApplicationInfo(Uri packageURI) {
        final String archiveFilePath = packageURI.getPath();
        PackageParser packageParser = new PackageParser(archiveFilePath);
        File sourceFile = new File(archiveFilePath);
        DisplayMetrics metrics = new DisplayMetrics();
        metrics.setToDefaults();
        PackageParser.Package pkg = packageParser.parsePackage(sourceFile, archiveFilePath, metrics, 0);
        if (pkg == null) {
            return null;
        }
        return pkg.applicationInfo;
    }

    /*
     * Utility method to get package information for a given packageURI
     */
    public static  PackageParser.Package getPackageInfo(Uri packageURI) {
        final String archiveFilePath = packageURI.getPath();
        PackageParser packageParser = new PackageParser(archiveFilePath);
        File sourceFile = new File(archiveFilePath);
        DisplayMetrics metrics = new DisplayMetrics();
        metrics.setToDefaults();
        return packageParser.parsePackage(sourceFile, archiveFilePath, metrics, 0);
    }

但是目前还有一个问题PackageParser你根本找不到这个类,这个类被隐藏了。能不能不要这么操蛋,我不校验签名了还不行吗?不校验那出了问题锅得你背,你可以把这个流程去掉试试。所以硬着头皮用反射吧:

/**
     * 获取该目录下的apk签名
     * @param path 当前apk路径
     * @return
     */
    public static String getSignature(String path) throws Exception{
        // 1.反射实例化PackageParser对象
        Object packageParser = getPackageParser(path);

        // 2.反射获取parsePackage方法
        Object packageObject = getPackageInfo(path,packageParser);

        // 3.调用collectCertificates方法
        Method collectCertificatesMethod = packageParser.getClass().
                getDeclaredMethod("collectCertificates",packageObject.getClass(),int.class);
        collectCertificatesMethod.invoke(packageParser,packageObject,0);

        // 4.获取mSignatures属性
        Field signaturesField = packageObject.getClass().getDeclaredField("mSignatures");
        signaturesField.setAccessible(true);
        Signature[] mSignatures = (Signature[]) signaturesField.get(packageObject);
        return mSignatures[0].toCharsString();
    }

    /**
     * 创建PackageParser.Package类,兼容5.0
     * @param path
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    private static Object getPackageInfo(String path, Object packageParser) throws Exception {
        if(Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >=21){
            Class[] paramClass = new Class[2];
            paramClass[0] = File.class;
            paramClass[1] = int.class;
            Method parsePackageMethod = packageParser.getClass().getDeclaredMethod("parsePackage",paramClass);

            // 3.反射执行parsePackage方法
            Object[] paramObject = new Object[2];
            paramObject[0] = new File(path);
            paramObject[1] = 0;
            parsePackageMethod.setAccessible(true);
            return parsePackageMethod.invoke(packageParser,paramObject);
        }else{
            Class[] paramClass = new Class[4];
            paramClass[0] = File.class;
            paramClass[1] = String.class;
            paramClass[2] = DisplayMetrics.class;
            paramClass[3] = int.class;
            Method parsePackageMethod = packageParser.getClass().getDeclaredMethod("parsePackage",paramClass);

            // 3.反射执行parsePackage方法
            Object[] paramObject = new Object[4];
            paramObject[0] = new File(path);
            paramObject[1] = path;
            DisplayMetrics metrics = new DisplayMetrics();
            metrics.setToDefaults();
            paramObject[2] = metrics;
            paramObject[3] = 0;
            parsePackageMethod.setAccessible(true);
            return parsePackageMethod.invoke(packageParser,paramObject);
        }
    }

    /**
     * 创建PackageParser类
     * @param path
     * @return
     * @throws Exception
     */
    private static Object getPackageParser(String path) throws Exception{
        Class packageParserClazz = Class.forName("android.content.pm.PackageParser");
        // 版本兼容
        if(Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >=21 ){
            Constructor packageParserConstructor = packageParserClazz.getDeclaredConstructor();
            return packageParserConstructor.newInstance();
        }else{
            Constructor packageParserConstructor = packageParserClazz.getDeclaredConstructor(String.class);
            return packageParserConstructor.newInstance(path);
        }
    }

3. 生成服务端.dll动态库

好不容测试没问题了,高高兴兴的打算去提交申请单。可是需要后台协助的时候说我根本不会生成dll动态库,好说歹说都不行,直接对你说你行你来啊,所以也只能自己来了。

#include 
#include "bzlib.h"
#include 
#include 
//#include 
//#include 
#include 
#include 
//#include 
#include "com_hc_diff_BSDiff.h"


#include 
#include 
#include 
typedef unsigned char u_char;
typedef long pid_t;

template
void err(int i, const char* str, T arg) {
    char lastErrorTxt[1024];
    FormatMessage(FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM|FORMAT_MESSAGE_IGNORE_INSERTS,NULL,GetLastError(),0,lastErrorTxt,1024,NULL);
    printf("%s",lastErrorTxt);
    printf(str, arg);
    exit(i);
}
void err(int i, const char* str) {
    char lastErrorTxt[1024];
    FormatMessage(FORMAT_MESSAGE_FROM_SYSTEM|FORMAT_MESSAGE_IGNORE_INSERTS,NULL,GetLastError(),0,lastErrorTxt,1024,NULL);
    printf("%s",lastErrorTxt);
    if (str!=NULL) {
        printf("%s",str);
    }
    exit(i);
}
template
void errx(int i, const char* str, T arg) {
    printf(str, arg);
    exit(i);
}
void errx(int i, const char* str) {
    printf("%s",str);
    exit(i);
}

#define MIN(x,y) (((x)<(y)) ? (x) : (y))

static void split(off_t *I,off_t *V,off_t start,off_t len,off_t h)
{
    off_t i,j,k,x,tmp,jj,kk;

    if(len<16) {
        for(k=start;kstart) split(I,V,start,jj-start,h);

    for(i=0;ikk) split(I,V,kk,start+len-kk,h);
}

static void qsufsort(off_t *I,off_t *V,u_char *old,off_t oldsize)
{
    off_t buckets[256];
    off_t i,h,len;

    for(i=0;i<256;i++) buckets[i]=0;
    for(i=0;i0;i--) buckets[i]=buckets[i-1];
    buckets[0]=0;

    for(i=0;iy) {
            *pos=I[st];
            return x;
        } else {
            *pos=I[en];
            return y;
        }
    };

    x=st+(en-st)/2;
    if(memcmp(old+I[x],_new,MIN(oldsize-I[x],newsize))<0) {
        return search(I,old,oldsize,_new,newsize,x,en,pos);
    } else {
        return search(I,old,oldsize,_new,newsize,st,x,pos);
    };
}

static void offtout(off_t x,u_char *buf)
{
    off_t y;

    if(x<0) y=-x; else y=x;

        buf[0]=y%256;y-=buf[0];
    y=y/256;buf[1]=y%256;y-=buf[1];
    y=y/256;buf[2]=y%256;y-=buf[2];
    y=y/256;buf[3]=y%256;y-=buf[3];
    y=y/256;buf[4]=y%256;y-=buf[4];
    y=y/256;buf[5]=y%256;y-=buf[5];
    y=y/256;buf[6]=y%256;y-=buf[6];
    y=y/256;buf[7]=y%256;

    if(x<0) buf[7]|=0x80;
}

int diff(int argc,char *argv[])
{
    int fd;
    u_char *old,*_new;
    off_t oldsize,newsize;
    off_t *I,*V;
    off_t scan,pos,len;
    off_t lastscan,lastpos,lastoffset;
    off_t oldscore,scsc;
    off_t s,Sf,lenf,Sb,lenb;
    off_t overlap,Ss,lens;
    off_t i;
    off_t dblen,eblen;
    u_char *db,*eb;
    u_char buf[8];
    u_char header[32];
    FILE * pf;
    BZFILE * pfbz2;
    int bz2err;

    if(argc!=4) errx(1,"usage: %s oldfile newfile patchfile
",argv[0]);

    /* Allocate oldsize+1 bytes instead of oldsize bytes to ensure
        that we never try to malloc(0) and get a NULL pointer */
    //org:
    //if(((fd=open(argv[1],O_RDONLY,0))<0) ||
    //    ((oldsize=lseek(fd,0,SEEK_END))==-1) ||
    //    ((old=malloc(oldsize+1))==NULL) ||
    //    (lseek(fd,0,SEEK_SET)!=0) ||
    //    (read(fd,old,oldsize)!=oldsize) ||
    //    (close(fd)==-1)) err(1,"%s",argv[1]);
    //new:
    //Read in chunks, don't rely on read always returns full data!
    if(((fd=_open(argv[1],O_RDONLY|O_BINARY|O_NOINHERIT,0))<0) ||
        ((oldsize=lseek(fd,0,SEEK_END))==-1) ||
        ((old=(u_char*)malloc(oldsize+1))==NULL) ||
        (_lseek(fd,0,SEEK_SET)!=0))
                err(1,"%s",argv[1]);
    int r=oldsize;
    while (r>0 && (i=read(fd,old+oldsize-r,r))>0) r-=i;
    if (r>0 || close(fd)==-1) err(1,"%s",argv[1]);


    if(((I=(off_t*)malloc((oldsize+1)*sizeof(off_t)))==NULL) ||
        ((V=(off_t*)malloc((oldsize+1)*sizeof(off_t)))==NULL)) err(1,NULL);

    qsufsort(I,V,old,oldsize);

    free(V);

    /* Allocate newsize+1 bytes instead of newsize bytes to ensure
        that we never try to malloc(0) and get a NULL pointer */
    //org:
    //if(((fd=open(argv[2],O_RDONLY,0))<0) ||
    //    ((newsize=lseek(fd,0,SEEK_END))==-1) ||
    //    ((_new=malloc(newsize+1))==NULL) ||
    //    (lseek(fd,0,SEEK_SET)!=0) ||
    //    (read(fd,_new,newsize)!=newsize) ||
    //    (close(fd)==-1)) err(1,"%s",argv[2]);
    //new:
    //Read in chunks, don't rely on read always returns full data!
    if(((fd=open(argv[2],O_RDONLY|O_BINARY|O_NOINHERIT,0))<0) ||
        ((newsize=lseek(fd,0,SEEK_END))==-1) ||
        ((_new=(u_char*)malloc(newsize+1))==NULL) ||
        (lseek(fd,0,SEEK_SET)!=0))
                err(1,"%s",argv[2]);

    r=newsize;
    while (r>0 && (i=read(fd,_new+newsize-r,r))>0) r-=i;
    if (r>0 || close(fd)==-1) err(1,"%s",argv[1]);

    if(((db=(u_char*)malloc(newsize+1))==NULL) ||
        ((eb=(u_char*)malloc(newsize+1))==NULL)) err(1,NULL);
    dblen=0;
    eblen=0;

    /* Create the patch file */
    //org:
    //if ((pf = fopen(argv[3], "w")) == NULL)
    //new:
    //if((fd=open(argv[3],O_CREAT|O_TRUNC|O_WRONLY|O_BINARY|O_NOINHERIT,0666))<0)
    if ((pf = fopen(argv[3], "wb")) == NULL)
        err(1,"%s",argv[3]);

    /* Header is
        0    8     "BSDIFF40"
        8    8    length of bzip2ed ctrl block
        16    8    length of bzip2ed diff block
        24    8    length of new file */
    /* File is
        0    32    Header
        32    ??    Bzip2ed ctrl block
        ??    ??    Bzip2ed diff block
        ??    ??    Bzip2ed extra block */
    memcpy(header,"BSDIFF40",8);
    offtout(0, header + 8);
    offtout(0, header + 16);
    offtout(newsize, header + 24);
    if (fwrite(header, 32, 1, pf) != 1)
        err(1, "fwrite(%s)", argv[3]);

    /* Compute the differences, writing ctrl as we go */
    if ((pfbz2 = BZ2_bzWriteOpen(&bz2err, pf, 9, 0, 0)) == NULL)
        errx(1, "BZ2_bzWriteOpen, bz2err = %d", bz2err);
    scan=0;len=0;
    lastscan=0;lastpos=0;lastoffset=0;
    while(scanoldscore+8)) break;

            if((scan+lastoffsetSf*2-lenf) { Sf=s; lenf=i; };
            };

            lenb=0;
            if(scan=lastscan+i)&&(pos>=i);i++) {
                    if(old[pos-i]==_new[scan-i]) s++;
                    if(s*2-i>Sb*2-lenb) { Sb=s; lenb=i; };
                };
            };

            if(lastscan+lenf>scan-lenb) {
                overlap=(lastscan+lenf)-(scan-lenb);
                s=0;Ss=0;lens=0;
                for(i=0;iSs) { Ss=s; lens=i+1; };
                };

                lenf+=lens-overlap;
                lenb-=lens;
            };

            for(i=0;i char*
    char* new_apk_cstr = (char*)env->GetStringUTFChars(new_apk_path, NULL);
    char* old_apk_cstr = (char*)env->GetStringUTFChars(old_apk_path, NULL);
    char* patch_path_cstr = (char*)env->GetStringUTFChars(patch_path, NULL);
    // 封装参数
    argv[0] = "diff";
    argv[1] = new_apk_cstr;
    argv[2] = old_apk_cstr;
    argv[3] = patch_path_cstr;


    // 调用生成差分包方法
    diff(argc,argv);


    // 释放资源
    env->ReleaseStringUTFChars(new_apk_path,new_apk_cstr);
    env->ReleaseStringUTFChars(old_apk_path, old_apk_cstr);
    env->ReleaseStringUTFChars(patch_path, patch_path_cstr);

}

NDK图片压缩加密上传和增量更新的实现流程差不多,我们都是用的第三方提供好的一些C库文件,然后在他的基础上写了一些调用代码。以后我们自己去编译libgif,webrtc,ffmpeg,fomd也是类似, 解决问题的方式很重要而不是过多的关注代码,这是内涵段子最后一篇技术分享的文章了。

来自:http://www.jianshu.com/p/4132834b7fe7

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